AMENDMENTS IN INDIAN CONSTITUTION

IMPORTANT POINT-

  • The first amendment act of Indian constitution was held 1950.
  • The last amendment act of Indian constitution was held in 2020.
  • There are three type of amendments done in the house of parliament.
  • Firstly, Amendment is done in parliament of India that can be passed by the simple majority.
  •  The second type of amendments includes that can be affected by the parliament by a prescribed “special majority” in each house; and
  • The third type of amendments includes those that require, in addition to such “special majority” in each house of the parliament, ratification by at least one half of the State Legislatures.
  • Although constitutional amendments require the support of a two-thirds majority in both houses of Parliament (with some amendments requiring ratification by a majority of state legislatures), the Indian Constitution is the most amended national constitution in the world.

LIST OF THE AMENDMENTS ACT –

  1. FIRST AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN 1951

15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376, Insert articles 31A and 31B, Insert schedule 9- Added special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes or for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs and STs). To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech. A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect against laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights. These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law.

  • second amendment act was done in, 1953

Amend article 81(1)(b)- The scale of representation in the Lok Sabha was readjusted stating that 1 member can   represent even more than 7.5 lakh people.

  • third AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1955

Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of four classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.

  • FOURTH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN 1955

Amend articles 31, 35 b and 305, Amend schedule 9- Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution.

  • FIVETH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN 1955

Article 3- Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.

  • SIXTH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1956

Article 269 and 286 and 7 scheduled- Amend the Union List and State List with respect to raising of taxes.

  • SEVENTH AMENDMENTS ACT WS DONE IN 1956

Article 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232. Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A.
Amend part 8, Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7- Reorganizations of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union territories.

  • EIGHT AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1960

Article 334- Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970.

  • NINTH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1960

Schedules 1- Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.

  1. TINETH AMENDEMNTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1961

Article 240 and amend scheduled 1- Incorporation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.

  1. ELEVENTH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1961

Article 66 and 71- Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college.

  1. TWELETH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN 1961

Article 240 and scheduled 1- Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.

  1. THIRTEEN AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1963

Article 170 and insert new article 371A- Formation of State of Nagaland, with special protection under Article 371A.

  1. FOURTEEN AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1962

Article 81 and 240 and insert article 239A and amend schedules 1 and 4- Incorporation of Pondicherry into the Union of India and creation of Legislative Assemblies for Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Manipur and Goa.

  1. FIFTEEN AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1963

articles 124, 128, 217, 222, 224, 226, 297, 311 and 316, Insert article 224A, amend schedule 7- Raise retirement age of High Court judges from 60 to 62 and other minor amendments for rationalising interpretation of rules regarding judges etc.

  1. SIXTEEN AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1963

articles 19, 84 and 173, amend schedule 3- Make it obligatory for seekers of public office to swear their allegiance to the Indian Republic and prescribe the various obligatory templates.

  1. SIVEENTH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1964

Article 31A and amend scheduled 9- To secure the constitutional validity of acquisition of Estates and place land acquisition laws in Schedule 9 of the constitution.

  1. EIGHTEEN AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1966

Article 3- Technical Amendment to include Union Territories in Article 3 and hence permit reorganization of Union Territories.

  1. NINETH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1966.

Article 324- Abolish Election Tribunals and enable trial of election petitions by regular High Courts.

  • TWEENTH AMENDMENTS ACT WAS DONE IN, 1966.

Article 233A- Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and sentences passed by judges and to validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges barring a few who were not eligible for appointment under article 233. Amendment needed to overcome the effect of judgment invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh.

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