- -Haya Fatima
Women are always seen as nutritionists. Woman care for the house, her husband and children, women are home-made and more passive; it is not the imagination of our conventional criminologists to conceive that women may commit violent crime, and thus criminology has historically exclude women from their research. Criminology is the study of criminality and criminal justice but the theory of crime focuses mostly on the male subject, valid from the male subject and emphasis on male victims, according to the feminist school of criminology. Feminist criminology examines crime in terms of gender, such as why males commit more crimes than women, why women commit more small crimes, such as shoplifting, than serious crimes, sexism in the legal system, and female victimisation. Feminist criminology is divided into several branches. Although additional “strands” such as postmodernism and ecofeminism exist, liberal, radical, Marxist, and socialist feminist are generally acknowledged. The majority of feminist criminology focuses on how traditional criminology has overlooked, misinterpreted or stereotyped women offenders, however there are several different ideas and variations on existing notions.
KEYWORDS Feminist criminology, gender and crime, intersectionality and crime, critical criminology
Criminology has always been a male-dominated science with male criminals as the principal topics. The feminist school of criminology is a branch of criminology that aims to explain women’s criminal behaviour. The school was founded in the 1970s, but it has only recently gained popularity. This is a field that sheds light on gender disparities in the criminal justice system. According to this research, women do not commit crime in the same way that men do, nor do they conduct violent crime in the same way that males do. It’s critical to comprehend the gender distinctions in delinquency. Because it decreases or eliminates criminal conduct in society, it is beneficial. We must choose which technique will assist us in achieving our objectives. We will be able to better analyze difficulties, locate a solution connected to the problem, and eventually implement the correct ones if we are aware about the facts.
The Feminist School of Criminology was founded in the mid-1960s in reaction to the seeming widespread negligence and separation of women in traditional criminological investigations. Defenders argue that the field of criminology has become organically one-sided and andocentric as a result of man-centric domination. This, they believe, motivates traditional criminology to either summarize or dismiss criminological requests pertaining to women in order to benefit the male-dominated status quo .On both the individual and social levels, criminology is the rational analysis of the type, degree, administration, causes, control, outcomes, and anticipation of criminal action. Criminology is a behavioural and sociological multidisciplinary subject that draws on the work of sociologists, therapists, logicians, experts, social anthropologists, and law academics. Raffaele Garofalo, an Italian law professor, coined the term criminology in 1885 as ‘Criminology.’ Following that, French anthropologist Paul Topinard coined the term “criminology,” which is quite similar to “criminology.”
Today’s feminist criminology is concerned about women’s exploitation. Different challenges in the law and criminal equity framework, such as female wrongdoing, prostitution, and sexual orientation imbalance, are also being considered. Women’s rights advocates seek to eliminate all forms of sexual orientation inequality. The goal is to attract women rather than push males away. Women’s equality is a collection of theories on women’s oppression and a collection of mechanisms to change it. The treatment of female criminals in the criminal justice system has been the subject of recent disputes in the criminology literature. There are two opposing points of view. The chivalry or patriarchy theory replicates the idea that female convicts are executed, saying that women treat men more kindly than men at all phases of the male-dominated legal process because men wish to protect the weak. There are many reasons for the disparities in sentencing between men and women, and not all feminists want the criminal justice system to treat women equally. Women don’t appear to have committed “huge” crimes like stock fraud, other Caucasian crimes, or bank robbery. Instead, they are committed to the criminal justice system for a variety of offenses.
THE FEMINIST SCHOOL’S EXTENT AND DEVELOPMENT
It is readily clear that men commit many more offenses, particularly those considered crucial to criminology, than women. The link between criminology and administrative and amendments structures has contributed to this emphasis. To a limited extent, the area was formed to aid in improving understanding of why people do wrongdoings, so that ways may be sanctioned to reduce such violations. Do women commit fewer transgressions and perpetuate wrongdoings that are less appealing to individuals concerned about public health? As a result, until the 1970s, females were mostly disregarded. Women did receive lesser punishments, according to Farrington and Morris (1983), but female offenders were more likely to be first-time offenders who committed less serious offenses. They used less aggression, stole less stuff, and so on. The primary criteria that determine the severity of the sentence for each criminal are the a priori history of the crime and the severity of the offense.
When these variables are factored into the equation, it is clear that there is no variation in the treatment of female and male criminals under the similar circumstances. Unmarried women or women in unconventional partnerships, on the other hand, likely to be handled more harshly, confirming a sentencing model based on societal desires to enhance gender norms within the context of heterosexual marriage or family life. Kruttschnitt (1982) served as a link between economic independence, informal social control, and harsher sanctions for women. Kruttschnitt discovered in a 1970s research of California’s population convictions that the sentence may change based on the degree to which a woman is financially reliant on others in everyday life: the more she is financially reliant on others, the less harsh the character is. As a result, the degree to which female criminals are subjected may be demonstrated. Formal sentencing may be reduced as a result of informal social control.
Feminist Criminology is a branch of criminology that focuses on women Furthermore, the weberian esteem-free approach to criminological study has failed to recognise that the analysts’ own experiences shape and form their own ways of dealing with their research. This has led to the uncritical assumption that facts and hypotheses about young boys and men may be applied to young girls and women.Experts and academics have agreed that the examination of male misbehaviour was the standard examination of misconduct, and that women who engaged in wrongdoing were more of an anomaly than a separate issue to be investigated.
Finally, the analysis of this training resulted in the feminist approach to criminology. Feminist criminology has just recently emerged as a recognized criminological stance in the last 30 years. Regardless, the term feminist criminology is a little misleading; it would be better to discuss feminist criminology. Feminist criminology encompasses a wide range of theoretical perspectives and methods that place the ways in which sex determines engagement at the centre of in-depth inquiry. The feminist idea isn’t a monolithic approach; it combines the liberal feminist focus on equal opportunity, the Marxist feminist focus on class relations and private enterprise as the source of women’s abuse, communist women’s activists’ mixing of male mastery with political and financial structures in the public arena as the source of imbalance, and the radical feminist focus on women’s empowerment. It focuses on a wide range of themes related to women and wrongdoing, such as possible definitions of wrongdoing, attitudes to female culpability, programming in women’s prisons, women as remedy workers, and the special requirements of female prisoners.
Regardless, both feminist theories place a similar focus on the ways in which the gendered structure of society is linked to wrongdoing. Most criminological research focused on male wrongdoers and criminal equity framework responses to male misconduct until the final half of the twentieth century. The lack of care for female criminals stems from the fact that most wrongdoings were perpetrated by men.
In any event, by the latter few decades of the twentieth century, female incarceration rates were skyrocketing, spurring a rise in research on young women, women, misbehaviour, and the criminal justice system. Several academics cite to the 1980s’ “war on drugs” and government regulatory changes as key explanations for the significant increase of female inmates as well as the growth of feminist criminological ideas. Clearly, the war on drugs and government policies are the driving forces behind the massive increase in female detention. Regardless, the essential underpinnings of feminist criminology date well before these developments. They’re more common in second-wave feminist movements, as well as radical criminology in the 1960s and 1970s.
21ST CENTURY FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY
The funding was an incredible endeavour, increasing the recognition of feminist criminology across the board. Because academics who are tied more to traditional theories and study have flooded the area of criminology, techniques that question the usual perspective have faced disdain or fundamentally a lack of commitment. The distribution of feminist grants and also the reduction of work provided have caused substantial difficulties. Certainly, the annual American Criminology Society Meetings did not even focus on females and misbehaviour until 1975. In addition, it was difficult to produce criminology diaries and numerous feminist grants were granted to smaller criminology and not very well-known. In 1989, the newspaper “Women and Criminal Justice” was promoted, especially with a view to producing intelligent research in a criminal equality framework for all elements of the female and young female association.
Violence against women was at present encouraged, in 1995, to distribute the award for sexual violence and female victims in a peer-checked way. A wide range of literature on women, misdeed and criminal equality have been issued since the mid-1990s. The main issue of Feminist criminology, the official output of the Women’s and Crime division of the American Society of Criminology, was issued in 2006 by Sage Publications. The diary focused on the feminist subsidy and distributing articles evaluated by peers into the frames of equity between feminists, the perpetrators, women, the exploitation of women and women. Although there has been progress in the development of the feminist grant, it remains in the general train to some degree reduced. Normally, only limited feminist grants, are not distributed, and yet lectures are not sufficiently careful about the feminist crime hypothesis.
Thus, if any data are available on feminist criminology, new ages are educated, but then provided nearly nothing. This is evident in their review and in the training and coaching of new researchers. This loop remained self-sufficient and new criminologists accepted insufficient feminist criminology instruction.
Feminist criminology, however, remains completely healthy. The Women and Crime Division is one of the largest fields in the American society, with a couple of significant distributors focusing on women and misconduct, and new scientists continue to emerge. The Women and Crime Division, which was started by a small group of scientists in the mid-80s, has now been around the fourth century, with feminist scholars recognized by the American Society of Criminology as fellows. The Momentum Feminist Criminological Grant covers hypothesis generation and testing, as well as research on violence against women, women’s misbehaviour, and women’s roles in the criminal justice system, both as guilty parties and as laborers. The emphasis on how social institutions effect men and women in unexpected ways is a distinguishing feature of feminist criminology. The feminist school contends that women have always been treated leniently due of their gender, marital status, biological features, hormone abnormalities, and other factors.
In fact, women cite defences like prenatal depression as justifications for infanticide and other crimes in criminal proceedings. Using biological grounds to jail women improves how biologically criminal women are perceived in society. As a result, society overlooks other factors that contribute to female criminal behaviour, such as social and economic factors. Women, being symbols of compassion and care, are always portrayed as loving figures whom lack masculinity, and hence cannot be considered criminals in the same sense as their male counterparts .
However, as times change, courts and jurists are redefining the paradigm of female criminality and treating female criminals identically to male criminals, keeping them on level with male criminals. Nonetheless, feminism is a matter of dispute that may be carried to the limit depending on one’s intelligence.
- Rai Dive (2020, March, 22) The Feminist School of Criminology https://blog.ipleaders.in/the-feminist-school-of-criminology-scope-and-emergence/
- Kimberley. J .Cook (2016) Has Criminology Awakened From Its “Androcentric Slumber”?https://uncw.edu/soccrm/documents/cook-2016-feminist-criminology.pdf
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