Budget is a financial statement showing the expected receipt and expenditure of Govt. for the coming fiscal or financial year.
Main objectives of budget are:
(i) Reallocation of resources.
(ii) Redistribution of income and wealth
(iii) Economic Stability
(iv) Management of public enterprises.
(v) Economic Growth
(vi) Generation of employment
There are two components of budget:
(a) Revenue budget
(b) Capital budget
Revenue Budget consists of revenue receipts of govt. and expenditure met from such revenue.
Capital budget consists of capital receipts and capital expenditure.
a. Direct Tax
i. Income tax
ii. Corporate Tax
iii. Wealth and Property Tax
b. Indirect Tax
i. Value added Tax
ii. Service Tax
iii. Excise Duty
iv. Custom Duty
v. Entertainment Tax
a. Commercial Revenue
c. Dividend, Profits
d. External Grants
e. Administrative Revenues
g. License Fee
h. Fines, Penalties
i. Cash grants-in-aid from foreign countries and international org.
A. Borrowing and Other liabilities
B. Recovery of Loans
C. Other receipts(Disinvestments)
Direct Tax: A direct tax is one whose burden cannot be shifted to others I.e. the impact and incidence of the tax is on the same person.ex- income tax, wealth tax, gift tax.
Indirect Tax: An indirect tax is one whose burden can be shifted to others or the impact and incidence of an indirect tax falls on different people. ex- excise duty, VAT, service tax.
(i) Neither creates liabilities for Govt.
(ii) Nor causes any reduction in assets.
(i) It creates liabilities or
(ii) It reduces financial assets.
(i) Neither creates assets
(ii) Nor reduces liabilities.
e.g., Interest Payment, subsidies etc.
(i) It creates assets
(ii) It reduces liabilities.
e.g., Construction of school building Repayment of loans etc.
It refers to a situation when budget expenditure of a govt. are greater than the govt. receipts.
Budgetary Deficit: Total Expenditure > Total Receipts.
It is the excess of govt. revenue expenditure over revenue receipts.
Revenue Deficit: Total revenue expenditure > Total revenue receipts
Implications of Revenue Deficit are:
(i) A high revenue deficit shows fiscal indiscipline.
(ii) It shows wasteful expenditures of Govt. on administration.
(iii) It implies that government is dissaving, i.e. government is using up savings of other sectors of the economy to finance its consumption expenditure.
(iv) It reduces the assets of the govt. due to disinvestment.
(v) A high revenue deficit gives a warning signal to the government to either curtail its expenditure or increase its revenue.
When total expenditure exceeds total receipts excluding borrowing.
Fiscal Deficit: Total expenditures > Total Receipts excluding borrowing.
Implications of Fiscal Deficits are:
(i) It leads to inflationary pressure.
(ii) A country has to face debt trap.
(iii) It reduces future growth and development.
(iv) It increases liability of the government.
(v) It increases foreign dependence.
By deducting Interest payment from fiscal deficit we get primary deficit.
Primary Deficit: Fiscal deficit – Interest payments.
Implications of Primary Deficits are:
It indicates, how much of the government borrowings are going to meet expenses other than the interest payments.
Measures to correct different deficits:-
(i) Monetary expansion or deficit financing.
(ii) Borrowing from public.
(iv) Borrowing from international monetary institution and other countries.
(v) Lowering govt. expenditure.
(vi) Increasing govt. revenue.