Author: Riya Chelani


Equality of status and opportunity, freedom of thought, articulation, conviction, confidence and love is featured under the prelude of Indian 

constitution, embraced on 26th of November 1949, from that point forward 67 years have passed, India has moved definitely and made its spot in the 

world as far as majority rule government, innovation, culture and its rich and changed legacy, however it failed to nullify contemporary arrangement of manual scavenging and failed to accomplish the “Equality of status” as referenced in the preface. The dry restrooms are still by and by at different pieces of the country prompting the age of unhygienic and undesirable climate, which prompts the age of foul smell, gases and reproducing of 


It influences the strength of individual living nearby such region, additionally it influences seriously the individual “The Scavenger” who gathers the get excreta manually and arranges dry to a spot which is either away from the assortment region or nearer to the spot of home of the Scrounger. Manual scavenging is accepted to be social practice as opposed to simple occupation; this conviction came from the standing arrangement of Hindu religion of India. India rank framework can be classified in four sections viz. Brahmins, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. The Scavengers fall under the most minimal progression of station framework for example The Dalits or Shudras which play out all kind of undesirable works on taking a chance with their lives to serve the society by cleaning the stopped up drains “the sewer lines”, manually giving the human excreta, expulsion of dead creatures in the city, towns what’s more, urban communities. Even subsequent to accomplishing more significant level in training the mindset of individuals is same. The scroungers are generally ladies. Men likewise take part in such occupation yet ladies cooperation is most. 

The as per most recent demonstration “Prohibition of work as manual foragers and their Rehabilitation Act 2013” is “An individual locked in or on the other hand utilized at the beginning of this demonstration or any time, from there on by an individual or neighborhood authority or an organization or a project worker, for manually cleaning, conveying, discarding, or in any case dealing with in any way, human excreta in an insanitary lavatory or in open channel or pit into which the human excreta from the insanitary toilets is discarded , or on rail line track or in such other space or premises, as focal legislature of a state government might inform, before the excreta completely break down in such a way as might be recommended”. 

Work government assistance includes that load of measures which advance the mental, social, physical and general prosperity of the specialists. It supports up the spirit of the specialist and urges them to try sincerely and genuinely. As for work government assistance, “Are all work working in solid and security climate? Is it accurate to say that they are understanding the feeling of belongingness with different representatives and society? Are they enthusiastically doing their work? Are they getting their fundamental rights?” actually dealing with the issue of manual scavenging are compelled to proceed with this errand. To annul this barbaric practice, as of late, our administration has presented new demonstration, “The Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Restoration Act, 2013”. By keeping above goals in see, this examination starts with the presentation of work government assistance, which means and issue of manual scavenging, assessment of hostile to manual endeavors of the public authority and explanations behind disappointments of the public authority measures and continuation of this training in the period of globalization and mechanical headway. To accomplish these targets different writings has been assessed. This study closes with impediments of the examination and extension for additional exploration.


In spite of Technological advancement, there are sure work class, who to perform undesirable and barbaric work on, dealing with the issue of unapproachability, denied with their essential rights and carrying on with existence without respect. This work class is known as Manual Scavengers, performing innate occupation, reluctantly and strongly for their unfilled stomach, once in a while their kids additionally support them to acquire vocation. These classifications of work class are known as ‘Bhangi’ in our general public. In reality, manual scavengers are individuals, who remove the human waste (night soil) from insanitary, “dry” toilets. (Commissions, 2011), characterized manual scavenging as the training to eliminate human excreta manually with the assistance of brushes and tin plates from dry toilets. Commission clarified that, the excreta are stacked into crates which scavengers convey on their heads to areas in some cases a few kilometers from the restrooms. (Pathak, 1995), referenced that this barbaric practice is said to have begun in the year 1214 in Europe when the primary public toilets showed up. (Suzuki, 2009), has disclosed this errand to be quite possibly the most shamed work. 

This brutal practice has made the existence of scavengers hopeless. These individuals play out this assignment consistently for a small bunch of cash. The level of female (95%) occupied with this assignment is more than male. Now and then there kids additionally support them. (Masoodi, 2013), has partaken in his article about the sensations of 57 year old Saraswati a manual forager in Farrukhnagar town Ghaziabad, she consented to do any position of safety work yet mentioning to remove from this training. These scavengers wonder whether or not to prepare food and even they don’t take dinner because of review of filthy work. 

(Medina, 2000), clarified the state of nation to be in reverse, grimy, messiness and indecency. He likewise featured different issues of scavengers like, experiencing parcel of afflictions, high newborn child death rate, miscreant anticipation and stands firm on most minimal foothold in the general public. In the public arena these individuals are known as untouchables. Indeed, their youngsters’ face segregation in school, school, work place and other social spots. (Wilson, 2012), shared insight and educated that individuals relate their personality to that of ‘Bhangi’ whether they have not played out that undertaking.


The volume of e-wastes is filling very quickly in India. The best five cities in e-waste generation in 2005 were: Mumbai (11017MTA), Delhi (9730MTA), Bangalore (4648MTA), Chennai (4132MTA) and Kolkata (4025 MTA). In a recent report, Chatterjee estimated that the volume of e-waste will reach nearly 0.7 million metric tons (MT) by 2015 and 2 million MT by 2025. The volume of e-waste in India is likewise developing because of illegal import of e-waste from developed countries. The e-wastes from the Gulf countries, Europe, Australia, and North America reach Mumbai and Chennai and from these beach front cities they are transported to Delhi for further processing. About 80% of the world’s electronic refuse is transferred to Asian countries with India receiving a large part. As per a report by MAIT-GTZ in 2007, the aggregate share of the casual sector recycling of e-waste in India was about 97% while the proper sector worked under limit. Another investigation reported the presence of more than 2,000 casual recyclers of e-waste containing around 270 medium and large piece dealers in India. In India, people who handle and remove refuse and waste materials (scavengers) additionally suffer social segregation or exclusion and low status. 

Without any alternative open position and having a social shame attached to their customary positions in their villages, members of the lower castes are forced to migrate to cities where they work in unskilled and risky positions like cloth picking, recycling and cleaning works. In a government report, it was stated that most of cloth pickers (55.5%) in the New Okhla Industrial Development Authority (NOIDA) region were Scheduled Caste children [25]. Consequently, children are exposed to such dangers as though they are merely expendable hands: a position tolerated in textile factories in England in the nineteenth C (Pandey and Govind)


Indeed, even in this high level period where people are occupied with spreading significance on common freedoms and other socially important issues, it is humiliating to know a portion of our kindred creatures are as yet treated as untouchables and are compelled to clean the excreta of others to acquire their day by day bread. This mirrors an obvious picture that India is as yet choking with the wrongs of station framework. In the new years this issue has produced broad acknowledgment in both public and global stages. Despite the fact that there came different enactments and official actions to check this demonstration, they all went worthless because of the absence of genuine execution of administrative arrangements. 

Given the significance of the casual area there is a dire need to roll out essential improvements in the pertinent law to perceive the assortment work of casual labourers. Furthermore, the destroying what’s more, reusing of e-squanders ought to be confined by law and by the implementation of law stringently to enlisted units – no units in the casual area. This raises incredible trouble of policing, and investigation. It involves political will; yet that is a typical issue in India. The labourers occupied with assortment, shipping and reusing of e-squander should be covered with clinical protection and the cash for it very well may be figured it out from the first merchants of the hardware as a component of their corporate social obligation.


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[2] Monika and Kishore, Jugal 2010, E-waste Management: As a Challenge to Public    Health in India. Indian Journal of Community and 

Medicine 35(3), 382-385. 

[3] Toxics  Link,  2007,  WEEE:  Other  Side  of  Digital  Revolution  (New  Delhi:  Toxics  Link          Factsheet).  Available  online  at: (Accessed 25 June 2013) 

[4] Krishna,  Gopal,  2009,  E-waste  Status  in  India,  Available  online  at: 

(Accessed 10 October 2013). 

[5] Dwivedi, Maheshwari and Mittal, R.K., 2010, Estimation of Future Outflows of E-     waste in India. Waste Management 30(3), 483-


[6] Canadian Institute for Environmental Law and Policy, 2009, Discussion Paper on Sustainable E-waste Management of Waste Electrical 

and Electronic Equipment. Available online at: (Accessed 25 February 2013). 

[7] Demaria, Federico, 2010, Ship Breaking at Alang-Sosiya (India): An Ecological Distribution Conflict. Ecological Economics  70, 250-


[8] Rousmaniere, Peter and Raj, Nikhil, 2007, Ship Breaking in the Developing World: Problems and Prospects. International Journal of 

Occupational and Environmental Health 13, 359-368. 

[9] Misra, Hrudanand, 2012, Workers health at Alang Ship- Breaking Yard, Gujarat. Indian Journal of Youth Affairs  16(1), 1-9. 

[10] Department of Environment and Forest 2010, State of Environment Report for Delhi 2010 (New Delhi: Department of Environment and 

Forest,  Government  of  NCT Delhi).  Available  online  at” Delhi2010.pdf (Accessed 25 


[11] Chatterjee, S. and  Kumar,  K.,  2009, Review „Effective  Electronic  Waste  Management  and Recycling  Process Involving Formal  and 

Non-Formal Sectors, International Journal of Physical Sciences 4(13), 893-905.   

[12] TNN, 2010, Mayapuri: Disaster protocol not clear, says health minister, The Times of India, 4 May. 

[13] Ministry of  Environment  and Forest,2011,   E-  waste (Management  and   Handling) Rules2011,12May,(NewDelhi:  Government  of 

India).Available online at: 15 June 2013). 

[14] Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India, 2012 Disposal of E-waste, Lok Sabha unstarred Question no.440, answered 

on 07-05-2012. 

[15] Central Pollution Control Board, 2013, List of Registered E Waste Dismantler/Recycler. Available online at: http://www/ 

waste_Registration_list.pdf (Accessed 8 November 2013)

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