CIVIL SERVICES NOTES

  • Government Budget and Economy
    Budget is a financial statement showing the expected receipt and expenditure of Govt. for the coming fiscal or financial year. Main objectives of budget are:(i) Reallocation of resources.(ii) Redistribution of income and wealth(iii) Economic Stability(iv) Management of public enterprises.(v) Economic Growth(vi) Generation of employment There are two components of budget:(a) Revenue budget(b) Capital budgetRevenue Budget … Continue reading Government Budget and Economy
  • Law of Supply
    The law of supply reflects the general tendency of the sellers in offering their stock of a commodity for sale in relation to the varying prices.It describes seller’s supply behaviour under given conditions. It has been observed that usually sellers are willing to supply more with a rise in prices.The law of supply may be … Continue reading Law of Supply
  • COMMON GOOD
    In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, general welfare, or public benefit) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service. The concept … Continue reading COMMON GOOD
  • PUBLIC FINANCE
    Public finance is the management of a country’s revenue, expenditures Expenditure. An expenditure represents a payment with either cash or credit to purchase goods or services. An expenditure is recorded at a single point in time (the time of purchase), compared to an expense which is allocated or accrued over a period of time. This guide will … Continue reading PUBLIC FINANCE
  • PRESIDENT OF INDIA
    ELECTION OF PRESIDENT The President is elected not directly by the people but by members of electoral college consisting of : The elected members of both the houses of Parliament The elected members of the legislative assemblies of the States The elected members of the legislative assemblies of the union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry. … Continue reading PRESIDENT OF INDIA
  • Functions of Parliament
    India has a parliamentary system of government. The Union Parliament is the supreme legislative body in the country. The Indian Parliament is a bicameral legislature consisting of two houses – the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The members of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) are directly elected by the people through the … Continue reading Functions of Parliament
  • Political Realignment
    A political realignment, often called a critical election, critical realignment, or realigning election, in the academic fields of political science and political history, is a set of sharp changes in party ideology, issues, party leaders, regional and demographic bases of power of political parties, and the structure or rules of the political system, such as … Continue reading Political Realignment
  • Human capital formation
    Human Capital FormationKnowledge has played a significant role in the development of mankind. Education, learning, training can be gained and spread through various means like music, books, movies, lectures, etc. It has already been proved that the businesses initiated by the educated and skilled individuals are always productive than that started by the unskilled person. … Continue reading Human capital formation
  • Taxation
    In order to run the government and manage affairs of a state, money is required. So the government imposes taxes in many forms on the incomes of individuals and companies. Broadly taxes are divided in two categories: Direct Taxes Indirect Taxes Direct Taxes A tax that is paid directly by an individual or organization to … Continue reading Taxation
  • Why do we need a parliament?
    Why Should People Decide? The decision of people matters in a democratic country because: A democratic government is run by the consent, approval, and participation of the people or citizens. The people in a democracy are the citizens and they are an integral part of any democracy. The people elect a few candidates who represent … Continue reading Why do we need a parliament?
  • Immigration conundrum – U.S.-Mexico border
    Why in news? The nearly two-month-old U.S. government under President Joe Biden is facing the highest number of migrants reaching its border with Mexico in 20 years. What is the extent of the crisis? There is an unprecedented surge of unaccompanied minors at the U.S.- Mexico border in few weeks. The number of unaccompanied teens … Continue reading Immigration conundrum – U.S.-Mexico border
  • Factors responsible for location of industries
    Industrial locations are complex in nature. These are influenced by the availability of many factors. Some of them are: raw material, land, water, labor, capital, power, transport, and market. For ease of convenience, we can classify the location factors into two: geographical factors and non-geographical factors. Geographical Factors Raw material: Availability of natural resource that can … Continue reading Factors responsible for location of industries
  • Koeppen’s classification of Climate
    GEOGRAPHY The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying the world’s climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. The Köppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter. A – Tropical Moist Climates: all months have average temperatures above … Continue reading Koeppen’s classification of Climate
  • Alexei Navalny and Russia
    What is the issue? The latest happening in relation with anti-Putin activist Alexei Navalny is his detention on arrival from Berlin and the subsequent country-wide public protests. The events surrounding Navalny needs attention and here is a look at the likely impact of his presence and role in Russia. Who is Alexei Navalny? Navalny is … Continue reading Alexei Navalny and Russia
  • Agricultural Seasons and Major Crops in India
    India is predominantly an agricultural country. Agriculture is the mainstay of our economy, provides employment to about two-thirds of working population. It also contributes about a third to our national income. (The contributory share in gross domestic product at present is 24.5%). Indian agriculture is dependent to a large extent on monsoons, soil and relief. … Continue reading Agricultural Seasons and Major Crops in India
  • Business Cycle
    Period of Expansion :  The period of high income, output and employment has been called the period of expansion, upswing or prosperity. Contraction : The period of low income, output and employment has been described as contraction, recession, downswing or depression. Meaning of Business Cycle: The economic history of the free market capitalist countries has … Continue reading Business Cycle
  • Silicon Valley Start-up Robinhood- Wall Street Chaos
    Why in news? The online trading app Robinhood became a cultural phenomenon in Silicon Valley with being one of the hottest venues in the past week’s retail-trading frenzy. But it abruptly blocked clients from purchasing shares of some companies whose stock prices had spiked dramatically and shaken up Wall Street. How did Robinhood evolve? Robinhood … Continue reading Silicon Valley Start-up Robinhood- Wall Street Chaos
  • Forest
    Forest A forest is an area of land dominated by trees. Hundreds of definitions of forest are used throughout the world, incorporating factors such as tree density, tree height, land use, legal standing and ecological function. The Food and Agriculture Organization defines a forest as land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 meters and a canopy … Continue reading Forest
  • GDP
    GDP GDPGDP stands for Gross Domestic Product. The meaning of GDP is the measure of the value of the economic activity within the country. In simpler words, GDP is defined as the sum of the final prices of the goods and services produced in an economy in a given period. The GDP of India is … Continue reading GDP
  • The Preamble
    SUBJECT: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW The Preamble The Preamble refers to the introduction or preface to the constitution. It contains the essence of the entire constitution. The Constituent Assembly first met on Dec. 9th, 1946 and the preamble to the Indian constitution based on the ‘Objective Resolution’ drafted and moved by Pandit Nehru on Dec. 13th, 1947. Text … Continue reading The Preamble
  • World War – II
                                                                                     Subject: History (world history series)  Topic 3:  World War – II SYNOPSIS: Causes of WW II Beginning of WW II Intensification of War Part played by naval force Consequences of WW II The Second World War, like the First, started in Europe and assumed the character of a world war. In spite of … Continue reading World War – II
  • Wages
    Wages 1. Meaning of Wages  2. Factors Determining Real Wages  3. Causes for Wage Differences  4. Types  5. Factors  6. Theories  7. Determination of Fair Wages for Workers  8. Money Wages and Real Wages. Meaning of Wages: Wages are the remuneration or reward for labour. There are two main kinds of wages- (1) Nominal wages … Continue reading Wages
  • US- End to Private Prisons
    Why in news?  US President Joe Biden signed executive orders addressing racial injustice.  Significantly, it included ordering the Justice Department to end its dependence on private prisons.  Why is this significant?  The move signals a major departure from the policies of former President Donald Trump.  U.S., just before the recent elections, witnessed months of protests … Continue reading US- End to Private Prisons
  • Desert and its types
    A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the … Continue reading Desert and its types
  • U.S.’s 1776 Commission Report
    Why in news? The White House recently released the 1776 Commission report, just days before president-elect Joe Biden would take his oath in office. Why was the commission set up? In September 2020, US President Donald Trump signed an executive order to set up a “national commission to promote patriotic education” in the country. The … Continue reading U.S.’s 1776 Commission Report
  • World War I
    Date: 25-01-2021 Subject: History (world history series) Topic 3:  World War – I (Content by Sri Padma Priya) SYNOPSIS: Introduction Underlying causes of War Alliances that led to War Series of events before War On War End of War Effect of War Conclusion INTRODUCTION: In 1914, a war began in Europe which soon engulfed almost … Continue reading World War I
  • Budget
    A budget is a financial plan for a defined period, often one year. It may also include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities, costs and expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows. Companies, governments, families and other organizations use it to express strategic plans of activities or events in measurable terms. A budget is the sum of the money allocated for a particular purpose and the summary of intended expenditures along with … Continue reading Budget
  • CLIMATE CHANGE
    What do we mean by climate and climate change? Climate is the average of weather over time and across large regions, even the entire planet. The global climate has always varied for many reasons, such as interactions between components in the climate system oceans, atmosphere, ice sheets, etc. A climatic phenomenon where the surface temperature … Continue reading CLIMATE CHANGE
  • AMENDMENTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION (PART-2)
    TWENTY-ONE AMENDMENT ACT WAS DONE IN 1967  Amend schedule 8- Include Sindhi as an official language.  TWENTY-TWO AMENDMENT ACT WAS DONE IN 1969  Amend article 275, Insert articles 244A and 371B- Provision to form Autonomous states within the    State of Assam. TWENTY-THREE AMENDMENT ACT WAS DONE IN 1970 Amend articles 330, 332, 333 and 334- … Continue reading AMENDMENTS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION (PART-2)
  • Decolonisation
    SYNOPSIS: What is decolonization? What is scope of decolonization? What halted colonizers from colonization and decolonization occurred? Factors led to decolonization Impacts of decolonization What is Decolonisation? Decolonisation is the undoing of colonialism. Colonialism is a process of a nation establishing and maintaining its dominations of overseas territories. The concept of decolonisation, in particular, applies … Continue reading Decolonisation
  • Argentina’s Legalization of Abortion
    What is the issue? Argentina, which had some of the world’s most restrictive abortion laws, has legalised abortions up to the 14th week of pregnancy. This change is historic and its implications may be witnessed beyond Argentina, in Latin America at large. What is the condition so far? The Catholic Church and the evangelical community … Continue reading Argentina’s Legalization of Abortion
  • Balance of trade
    The balance of trade is the difference between the monetary value of a nation’s exports and imports over a certain time period. It is also known as Commercial balance or net exports. Sometimes a distinction is made between a balance of trade for goods versus one for services. The balance of trade measures a flow of exports and imports over a given period … Continue reading Balance of trade
  • Colonialism
    SYNOPSIS: What is colonialism? History of colonialism Types of colonialism Advantages of colonialism Disadvantages of colonialism Impacts of colonialism WHAT IS COLONIALISM?          The origin of the word ‘colonialism’ can be traced back to the Latin word “colōnia”  meaning “a place for agriculture”. The standard definition of colonialism is “a policy and practice of a … Continue reading Colonialism
  • INDIA, CHINA RELATIONS
    On 1st April 2020, India and China marked the 70 years of the establishment of India-China diplomatic relations. With the recent developments in the relations of two nations and the 70th anniversary of their diplomatic relations makes the “Indo-China Relations’ an important topic for UPSC Civil Services 2020 Prelims and Mains GS Paper-II. These two … Continue reading INDIA, CHINA RELATIONS
  • Microeconomic theory
    Consumer demand theory Consumer demand theory relates preferences for the consumption of both goods and services to the consumption expenditures; ultimately, this relationship between preferences and consumption expenditures is used to relate preferences to consumer demand curves. The link between personal preferences, consumption and the demand curve is one of the most closely studied relations in economics. It is a way of … Continue reading Microeconomic theory
  • Major River System In India
    Indus River System Brahmaputra River System Ganga River System Yamuna River System Narmada River System   Godavari River System Cauvery River 1. Indus River System The Indus System is one of the largest river basins of the world, covering an area of 11, 65,000 sq. km (in India it is 321, 289 sq. km and … Continue reading Major River System In India
  • Industrial Revolution (Part II)
    SYNOPSIS:  Impact of Industrial Revolution on other countries Second Industrial Revolution Third Industrial Revolution  Fourth Industrial Revolution IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION OVER OTHER COUNTRIES BELGIUM Britain started the revolution with the introduction of new technology and techniques. But in the late 18th century, the revolution reached continental Europe, arriving first to the small country of … Continue reading Industrial Revolution (Part II)
  • Human capital formation
    Human Capital Formation Knowledge has played a significant role in the development of mankind. Education, learning, training can be gained and spread through various means like music, books, movies, lectures, etc. It has already been proved that the businesses initiated by the educated and skilled individuals are always productive than that started by the unskilled … Continue reading Human capital formation
  • President Of India
    ELECTION OF PRESIDENT The President is elected not directly by the people but by members of electoral college consisting of : The elected members of both the houses of Parliament The elected members of the legislative assemblies of the States The elected members of the legislative assemblies of the union Territories of Delhi and Puducherry. … Continue reading President Of India
  • Industrial Revolution (Part I)
    SYNOPSIS: What is Industrial Revolution? Society in Pre-Industrial Revolution Causes of Industrial Revolution  Innovation during Industrial Revolution Effects of Industrial Revolution Advantages of Industrial Revolution Disadvantages of Industrial Revolution What is Industrial Revolution? Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine … Continue reading Industrial Revolution (Part I)
  • ​Common Good
    In philosophy, economics, and political science, the common good (also commonwealth, general welfare, or public benefit) refers to either what is shared and beneficial for all or most members of a given community, or alternatively, what is achieved by citizenship, collective action, and active participation in the realm of politics and public service. The concept … Continue reading ​Common Good
  • Taxation
    In order to run the government and manage affairs of a state, money is required. So the government imposes taxes in many forms on the incomes of individuals and companies. Broadly taxes are divided in two categories: Direct Taxes Indirect Taxes Direct Taxes A tax that is paid directly by an individual or organization to … Continue reading Taxation
  • Public finance
    Public finance is the management of a country’s revenue, expenditures Expenditure. An expenditure represents a payment with either cash or credit to purchase goods or services. An expenditure is recorded at a single point in time (the time of purchase), compared to an expense which is allocated or accrued over a period of time. This … Continue reading Public finance
  • Taxation
    In order to run the government and manage affairs of a state, money isrequired. So the government imposes taxes in many forms on the incomesof individuals and companies. Broadly taxes are divided in two categories: Direct Taxes Indirect TaxesDirect Taxes A tax that is paid directly by an individual or organization to theimposing entity (generally … Continue reading Taxation
  • Why do we need a parliament?
    Why Should People Decide?The decision of people matters in a democratic country because:A democratic government is run by the consent, approval, and participationof the people or citizens.The people in a democracy are the citizens and they are an integral part ofany democracy.The people elect a few candidates who represent their collective voices inthe Parliament.The Role … Continue reading Why do we need a parliament?
  • Political Realignment
    A political realignment, often called a critical election, critical realignment, or realigningelection, in the academic fields of political science and political history, is a set of sharp changes inparty ideology, issues, party leaders, regional and demographic bases of power of political parties,and the structure or rules of the political system, such as voter eligibility or financing. The changesresult in a new political power … Continue reading Political Realignment
  • Human capital formation
    Human Capital FormationKnowledge has played a significant role in the development of mankind.Education, learning, training can be gained and spread through various meanslike music, books, movies, lectures, etc. It has already been proved that thebusinesses initiated by the educated and skilled individuals are alwaysproductive than that started by the unskilled person. Therefore, the incomeearned by … Continue reading Human capital formation
  • Political Realignment
    A political realignment, often called a critical election, critical realignment, or realigning election, in the academic fields of political science and political history, is a set of sharp changes in party ideology, issues, party leaders, regional and demographic bases of power of political parties, and the structure or rules of the political system, such as voter eligibility or financing. The changes result in … Continue reading Political Realignment
  • Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility
    Utility explains that as a person consumes an item or a product, the satisfaction or utility that they derive from the product wanes as they consume more and more of that product. For example, an individual might buy a certain type of chocolate for a while. Soon, they may buy less and choose another type … Continue reading Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility
  • Political Pundits
    A pundit is a person who offers to mass media their opinion or commentary on a particular subject area (most typically political analysis, the social sciences, technology or sport) on which they are knowledgeable (or can at least appear to be knowledgeable), or considered a scholar in said area. The term has been increasingly applied to popular media personalities.[1] In certain cases, it may be used in a derogatory manner as … Continue reading Political Pundits
  • Functions of Parliament
    India has a parliamentary system of government. The Union Parliament is the supreme legislative body in the country. The Indian Parliament is a bicameral legislature consisting of two houses – the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The members of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) are directly elected by the people through the … Continue reading Functions of Parliament
  • Citizenship Act of 1955: Provisions and Amendments
    The Citizenship Act, 1955 and its Amendments deal with the acquisition and termination of citizenship in India. Moreover, the Constitution has also provided citizenship rights for Overseas Citizen of India, Non-Resident Indians, and Persons of Indian Origin.IntroductionThe term citizenship refers to the enjoyment of full membership of any community or state in which a citizen; … Continue reading Citizenship Act of 1955: Provisions and Amendments
  • Important Events of Indian Freedom Struggle
    Home Rule Movement: The Extremists team which had a radical viewpoint in attaining national freedom started a movement. This movement was solely started by B.G. Tilak which created public agitation on a large scale. The people agitatedly came forward for the home rule. The home rule league decided on taking up and adopting a self-government … Continue reading Important Events of Indian Freedom Struggle
  • India Pulls Out of Kavkaz 2020
    Recently, India has withdrawn its participation from Kavkaz 2020, a multinational tri-services exercise in Russia, citing Covid-19 as the official reason. Key PointsOther Possible Reasons for Withdrawal: Participation of Chinese, Turkish and Pakistani troops.The standoff at Line of Actual Control (LAC) with China has been ongoing since May 2020 and several rounds of talks for disengagement have failed to end the impasse. However, … Continue reading India Pulls Out of Kavkaz 2020
  • Law Of Supply
    The law of supply reflects the general tendency of the sellers in offering their stock of a commodity for sale in relation to the varying prices.It describes seller’s supply behaviour under given conditions. It has been observed that usually sellers are willing to supply more with a rise in prices.The law of supply may be … Continue reading Law Of Supply
  • Amendment Procedure Of Indian Constitution.
    Article 368 of the Indian Constitution mentions two types of amendments to the Indian Constitution. One type of amendment is by a special majority of the Parliament (Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha) and the second type of the amendment is the by a special majority of the Parliament with the ratification by half of the … Continue reading Amendment Procedure Of Indian Constitution.
  • The Municipalities.
    Definition243P. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires,—(a) “Committee” means a Committee constituted under article 243S;(b) “district” means a district in a State;(c) “Metropolitan area” means an area having a population of ten lakhs or more, comprised in one or more districts and consisting of two or more Municipalities or Panchayats or other contiguous areas, specified by the … Continue reading The Municipalities.
  • Phases of Indian Foreign Policy
    The very structure of the international order is undergoing a profound transformation. This can be attributed by various geopolitical events.USA’s unilateralism under America First policy.Re-balancing of the global economy: The rise of China, India etc.Return of old empires: Resurgence of Russia, Iran or Turkey.Geopolitical Flux in the Middle East: Crisis in Syria & Afghanistan, Reign … Continue reading Phases of Indian Foreign Policy
  • Indian Foreign Trade
    INTRODUCTIONIndian Foreign Trade has very long history. Before Independence, Indian economy was typical of a colonial and agricultural economy. Trade relations were mainly confined to Britain and other Commonwealth countries. Exports consisted chiefly of raw materials and plantation crops while imports composed of light consumer goods and other manufactures. Over the last 71 years, India’s … Continue reading Indian Foreign Trade
  • Interest groups
    Interest group, also called special interest group or pressure group, any association of individuals or organizations, usually formally organized, that, on the basis of one or more shared concerns, attempts to influence public policy in its favour. All interest groups share a desire to affect government policy to benefit themselves or their causes. Their goal could be a policy that … Continue reading Interest groups
  • Contribution of reformist in Indian National Movement
    The contribution of reformists during the national movement in the British era. Raja Ram Mohan Roy: One of the greatest pioneers and a very famous personality who has contributed insignificantly towards the Indian nationalism movement is Raja Ram Mohan Roy. These reforms were very prominent around the 18th and 19th century. This man, although had … Continue reading Contribution of reformist in Indian National Movement
  • J&K Issue Raised at UNSC
    Recently, China has called India’s move in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) “illegal and invalid” and raised the issue at the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) in New York (USA).On 5th August 2019, the President of India promulgated the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019 effectively abrogating the special status accorded to J&K under the provision of Article 370.5th August 2020 marks the one year anniversary of that move. On its … Continue reading J&K Issue Raised at UNSC
  • Law of Demand
    The law of demand describes the relationship between the quantity demanded and the price of a product.It states that the demand for a product decreases with increase in its price and vice versa, while other factors are at constant.Therefore, there is an inverse relationship between the price and quantity demanded of a product.Marshall stated that- … Continue reading Law of Demand
  • Separation of powers in the Indian Constitution
    The three branches of the government are the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. Although the three have distinct functions to perform, their scope sometimes meet. In this article, you can read all about the relationship between the three arms of the government . Separation of PowersIn India, a separation of functions rather than of … Continue reading Separation of powers in the Indian Constitution
  • Fundamental Duties
    IntroductionThe Government is planning to assign its different Ministries with the task of spreading awareness about Fundamental duties among people. The idea of Fundamental Duties is inspired from the Constitution of Russia. These were incorporated in Part IV-A of the Constitution by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1976 on the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee. Originally 10 in number, one more duty was added … Continue reading Fundamental Duties
  • Effect on Economy During British Era
    How was the economy affected during the British Era?Earlier, the British came into India just with the intention to trade but ended up making colonies and grasping the political hold in India. It was from the Battle of Plassey and the annexation of Punjab in 1849 that the British Raj finally came into the scene. … Continue reading Effect on Economy During British Era
  • Sri Lanka to Draft a New Constitution
    The Sri Lankan President Gotabaya Rajapaksa (elected in 2019), while addressing the inaugural session of the Parliament, said that Sri Lanka will draft a new Constitution and abolish the 19th Amendment that curtailed the powers of the President and strengthened the role of Parliament. Sri Lanka’s new Cabinet includes members from the Rajapaksa family. Mahinda Rajapaksha is the Prime Minister of … Continue reading Sri Lanka to Draft a New Constitution
  • Political Parties
    Why do we need political parties? Political parties are easily one of the most visible institutions in a democracy. Parties have become identified with social and political divisions. About hundred years ago there were a few countries of the world that had any political party: Now there are few that do not have parties. Meaning: … Continue reading Political Parties
  • Fiscal Policy
    What Is Fiscal Policy? Fiscal policy is the means by which a government adjusts its spending levels and tax rates to monitor and influence a nation’s economy. It is the sister strategy to monetary policy through which a central bank influences a nation’s money supply. These two policies are used in various combinations to direct … Continue reading Fiscal Policy
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
    Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Regarded as one of the most shameful acts committed by the British people on the Indian Lands was the incident of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. It is also very well known as Massacre of Amritsar. Regarded as one of the most tragic events where thousands of people lost their life, it is one … Continue reading Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
  • SAARC and CICA meetings
    SAARC and CICA Meetings Recently, the Foreign Ministers’ meetings of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA) took place in a virtual manner. Key Points India-Pakistan Tussle: India called the SAARC countries to collectively resolve to defeat the scourge of terrorism, including the forces that nurture, support and encourage … Continue reading SAARC and CICA meetings
  • Government Budget and Economy
    Budget is a financial statement showing the expected receipt and expenditure of Govt. for the coming fiscal or financial year. Main objectives of budget are:(i) Reallocation of resources.(ii) Redistribution of income and wealth(iii) Economic Stability(iv) Management of public enterprises.(v) Economic Growth(vi) Generation of employment There are two components of budget:(a) Revenue budget(b) Capital budgetRevenue Budget … Continue reading Government Budget and Economy
  • Social Movement
    In the society a large number of changes have been brought about by efforts exerted by people individually and collectively. Such efforts have been called social movements. A social movement may, therefore, be defined as “a collectively acting with some continuity to promote or resist a change in the society or group of which it … Continue reading Social Movement
  • Politics of Separatism
    Muslim League Muslim league was a political organisation founded by Aga Khan in 1906. It is popularly known as the All India Muslim League. Its main motive was to protect and safeguard the rights of Muslims which were basically political in nature. It was Muhammad Iqbal who aimed at creating a separate League which only … Continue reading Politics of Separatism
  • Indian Foreign Policy
    From the time India first attained independence in 1947, its foreign policy during the Cold War period evolved from being pro-Soviet and antithetical to Western interests, to now becoming an important Western strategic partner and providing a counterweight to China. Over the last six-and-half decade India has massively expanded its influence worldwide, primarily through diplomacy … Continue reading Indian Foreign Policy
  • Monetary Policy in India
    What is meant by Monetary Policy? Monetary policy refers to the policy of the central bank – ie Reserve Bank of India in matters of interest rates, money supply and availability of credit. It is through the monetary policy, RBI controls inflation in the country. RBI uses various monetary instruments like REPO rate, Reverse RERO … Continue reading Monetary Policy in India
  • Citizenship of India
    Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. In India, Articles 5 – 11 of the Constitution deals with the concept of citizenship. The term citizenship entails the enjoyment of full membership of any State in which a citizen … Continue reading Citizenship of India
  • Sale Of Goods Act , 1930
    SCOPE OF THE ACT The Sale of Goods Act deals with ‘sale’ but not with ‘mortgage’ (which is dealt with under the Transfer of Property Act, 1882) or ‘pledge’ (which is dealt with under the Indian Contract Act, 1872). This Act deals with ‘goods’ but not with other movable property. e.g. actionable claims and money. … Continue reading Sale Of Goods Act , 1930
  • Constitution Of India
    Introduction Public policy A model is simplified representation of some aspect of the real world. It may be an actual representation – an airport model. The models used in studying the public policy are conceptual models. Models serve many purposes: This simplifies and clarifies one’s thinking about public policy and politics. They identify important aspects … Continue reading Constitution Of India
  • Indian History – Civil Disobedience Movement
    Civil Disobedience Movement The civil disobedience movement started in 1930. It was one of the most significant movement which was initiated by Mahatma Gandhi. These movements were started with the motive to attain freedom from the struggle. It was in 1930 that people of the Congress party had declared that “Poorna Swaraj” was the sole … Continue reading Indian History – Civil Disobedience Movement
  • Money and Banking.
    ALL INDIA LEGAL FORUM DATED- 25-09-2020 ECONOMICS Definition of money Money may be defined as anything which is generally acceptable as a medium of exchange and at the same time acts as a measure, store of value and standard of deferred payment. Functions of Money: 1. Primary Functions a. Medium of exchange b. Common measure of value or … Continue reading Money and Banking.
  • Divided Government
    INTRODUCTION A divided government is a type of government in presidential systems, when control of the executive branch and the legislative branch is split between two parties, respectively, and in semi-presidential systems, when the executive branch itself is split between two parties. Divided governments are seen by different groups as a benefit or as an … Continue reading Divided Government
%d bloggers like this:
search previous next tag category expand menu location phone mail time cart zoom edit close